I came across an essay Dice rolling mechanisms in RPGs (pdf, html) by Torben Mogensen at John Kim’s RPG System Design Page. The essay discuss about calculating probabilities and qualities of some method. There are also some discussion about other randomizing methods like cards and an example of how to use probability formulas in game design. The covered stuff is also usable also in computer design.
This reminds me of Adam Carpenter’s piece Applying risk analysis to play-balance RPGs at Gamasutra. The essay is about computer RPGs, but is can be also used with table-top system design. Risk analysis (or other simulation based evaluation method) would probably be good addition to the method described by Mogensen.